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Ultrasonic cleaning systems are made up of a generator, piezoelectric transducers and a process tank. Ultrasonic cleaning transducers are either immersible, bolt-on or mounted to the tank. The transducer is submerged in the liquid of the cleaning tank and is connected to an ultrasonic generator with a cable. As the electric ultrasonic frequency signal rises and falls, the transducer vibrates and generates compression waves within the cleaning liquid of the tank. These compression waves produce the cavitation bubbles which provides the power for ultrasonic cleaning. Transducers are manufactured to withstand the cavitation, immersion in the liquid and elevated temperature of the cleaning solution. For more information on ultrasonic transducers and how they are used refer to the following:
The (38 kHz) 40 kHz transducer includes the option of being mounted or bolted on to either the side or the bottom of a selected tank. The bolt-on and mounted configurations of the 40 kHz transducer will withstand cavitation during operation in the liquid of the cleaning solution at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. The heavy duty enclosure, rugged design along with the high grade material ensures high reliability even in the most demanding applications.
To accommodate specific size requirements the (950 kHz) 1 MHz bolt-on transducer can either be mounted or bolted onto the side or the bottom of a selected tank. The bolt-on or mounted configurations can be used with any size tank. They will withstand cavitation during operation in the liquid of the cleaning solution at elevated temperatures. The heavy duty enclosure, rugged design and quality material ensures high reliability for applications at megasonic frequencies.
Ultrasonic transducers and ultrasonic sensors are devices that generate or sense ultrasound energy. They can be divided into three broad categories: transmitters, receivers and transceivers. Transmitters convert electrical signals into ultrasound, receivers convert ultrasound into electrical signals, and transceivers can both transmit and receive ultrasound.
Systems typically use a transducer that generates sound waves in the ultrasonic range, above 18 kHz, by turning electrical energy into sound, then upon receiving the echo turn the sound waves into electrical energy which can be measured and displayed.
Ultrasound can also be used to make point-to-point distance measurements by transmitting and receiving discrete bursts of ultrasound between transducers. This technique is known as Sonomicrometry where the transit-time of the ultrasound signal is measured electronically (ie digitally) and converted mathematically to the distance between transducers assuming the speed of sound of the medium between the transducers is known. This method can be very precise in terms of temporal and spatial resolution because the time-of-flight measurement can be derived from tracking the same incident (received) waveform either by reference level or zero crossing. This enables the measurement resolution to far exceed the wavelength of the sound frequency generated by the transducers.
Ultrasonic transducers convert alternating current (AC) into ultrasound and vice versa. The transducers typically use piezoelectric transducers or capacitive transducers to generate or receive ultrasound. Piezoelectric crystals are able to change their sizes and shapes in response to voltage being applied. On the other hand, capacitive transducers use electrostatic fields between a conductive diaphragm and a backing plate.
The beam pattern of a transducer can be determined by the active transducer area and shape, the ultrasound wavelength, and the sound velocity of the propagation medium. The diagrams show the sound fields of an unfocused and a focusing ultrasonic transducer in water, plainly at differing energy levels.
Since piezoelectric materials generate a voltage when force is applied to them, they can also work as ultrasonic detectors. Some systems use separate transmitters and receivers, while others combine both functions into a single piezoelectric transceiver.
Ultrasound transmitters can also use non-piezoelectric principles. such as magnetostriction. Materials with this property change size slightly when exposed to a magnetic field and make practical transducers.
The diaphragm (or membrane) principle is also used in the relatively new micro-machined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs). These devices are fabricated using silicon micro-machining technology (MEMS technology), which is particularly useful for the fabrication of transducer arrays. The vibration of the diaphragm may be measured or induced electronically using the capacitance between the diaphragm and a closely spaced backing plate (CMUT), or by adding a thin layer of piezo-electric material on the diaphragm (PMUT). Alternatively, recent research showed that the vibration of the diaphragm may be measured by a tiny optical ring resonator integrated inside the diaphragm (OMUS).
Medical ultrasonic transducers (probes) come in a variety of different shapes and sizes for use in making cross-sectional images of various parts of the body. The transducer may be used in contact with the skin, as in fetal ultrasound imaging, or inserted into a body opening such as the rectum or vagina. Clinicians who perform ultrasound-guided procedures often use a probe positioning system to hold the ultrasonic transducer.
Ultrasonic sensors are widely used in cars as parking sensors to aid the driver in reversing into parking spaces. They are being tested for a number of other automotive uses including ultrasonic people detection and assisting in autonomous UAV navigation.
Because ultrasonic sensors use sound rather than light for detection, they work in applications where photoelectric sensors may not. Ultrasonics is a great solution for clear object detection and for liquid level measurement, applications that photoelectrics struggle with because of target translucence. As well, target color or reflectivity do not affect ultrasonic sensors, which can operate reliably in high-glare environments.
Passive ultrasonic sensors may be used to detect high-pressure gas or liquid leaks, or other hazardous conditions that generate ultrasonic sound. In these devices, audio from the transducer (microphone) is converted down to the human hearing range.
High-power ultrasonic emitters are used in commercially available ultrasonic cleaning devices. An ultrasonic transducer is affixed to a stainless steel pan which is filled with a solvent (frequently water or isopropanol). An electrical square wave feeds the transducer, creating sound in the solvent strong enough to cause cavitation.
In healthcare applications, piezo ultrasonic transducers provide capabilities such as the ultrasonic breaking up of kidney stones and the removal of dental plaque. In addition, they're used to conduct precise measurements to identify flaws and other anomalies detected between the transmitters and receivers of ultrasonic waves.
The high mechanical quality of APC's piezo transducers ensures that these sandwich-type ultrasonic transducers offer high electro-acoustical efficiency and low heat generation. The mechanical connection of the piezoelectric elements assures a large amplitude output. APC's standard ultrasonic cleaning transducers are available in four frequencies: 28 kHz, 40 kHz, 80 kHz, or 120 kHz. APC also offers a 50 kHz power transducer that can be used in a variety of applications, including as a fabric cleaner, nebulizer, atomizer, for ultrasonic mixing, or for cell disruption.
As is true in many other applications for piezoelectric materials, an assembly of multiple ceramic elements offers considerable performance and production advantages in ultrasonic cleaning transducers, relative to a single ceramic element. In order to provide the most efficient operation, simplify manufacturing, and reduce costs, more complex transducers intended for ultrasonic power applications usually are a composite of a piezoelectric ceramic center (multiple thin rings or disks of ceramic, for example), encompassed by metallic end or top and bottom parts. Under no liquid load, the mechanical quality factor, Qm , for a well-designed composite transducer will be greater than the corresponding value for an equivalent single piece ceramic transducer, and efficient heat conduction by the metallic portions will ensure a lower operating temperature in the ceramic portion of the transducer. The coupling factor, k, will approach that for a single-piece ceramic transducer.
The metallic portions of a composite transducer should have the same acoustic properties and cross-sectional area as the ceramic portion. Both metallic parts can be constructed from the same material or combination of materials, or the two parts can be made from materials with divergent properties. Potential construction materials include steel, aluminum, titanium, magnesium, bronze, and brass. Often, only one of the metallic parts is intended for high intensity output.
For maximum energy transfer from the transducer to the solvent in the ultrasonic cleaning tank, a composite ultrasonic transducer usually is a half-wavelength transducer with a resonance frequency of 20 kHz or 40 kHz. The electroacoustic efficiency of a composite ultrasonic transducer has an inverse relationship with the electromechanical coupling factor and the various quality factors of the components.
Seldom will the ceramic component of a composite transducer have adequate tensile strength to withstand the high mechanical stress associated with the power demands for ultrasonic cleaning applications. The tensile strength of the ceramic elements can be supplemented by mechanically pre-stressing the elements along the direction of polarization. Pre-stress is introduced by incorporating a single, large, central bolt or several smaller, peripherally arranged bolts into the design of the transducer. The single central bolt design offers slightly higher efficiency than the multiple peripheral bolt design, but manufacturing costs can be higher, assembly can be more difficult and, physically, the transducer will be significantly longer. 59ce067264